Following is an excerpt from Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 18 – Verse no 1 – 11 by Vraja Bihari Das.
Chapter 18th is called Conclusion; The Perfection of Renunciation.
The difference between Tyaag and Sanyas. When you give up activities it is called ‘Sannyas’ and when you give up the results of the activities it is called ‘Tyaag’. For example, when somebody gives up sex life that means he is practising Sannyas and when somebody earned 1 million dollars and gave it all to the charity, it means he is practising Tyaag.
Some people say that all materialistic activities should be given up where as other people say that you cannot give up all materialistic activities at some areas. That is why you need to practice sacrifice, charity and austerity to move on the path of renunciation. Indeed, sacrifice, charity and austerity will purify you. In Kalyuga the best way to show gratitude and perform sacrifice is by chanting ‘Hare Krishna’ so basically sacrificing is like paying tax to the universe for the various benefits that they are providing to all. Sacrificing is the gratitude people show either to please or to thank God. Charity is helping someone with anything they don’t have like giving food to children and people for free. Austerity also called as Tapasya in Kalyuga is performed by giving up an activity such as Gambling, sleeping till late hours and the main thing is by killing your ego and maintaining good relationship with people around. Something that hurts but you still keep moving on is known as Austerity.
Krishna’s final opinion is that you can perform sacrifice, charity and austerity without expecting any results as expecting is the sea of misery in this world. People who give more than receiving are happier and people whose desire is to receive more than giving are living in misery.
Krishna talks about Renunciation in the 3 modes of material nature
Mode of Ignorance
If one renounces by giving up his prescribed duty and ignore everything then that renouncing in the mode of ignorance but it cannot be called as renounce.
Mode of Passion
When one gives up prescribed duty as troublesome or in fear of wanting something is called as renounce in the mode of passion and people perform action with passion but it is filled with distress. For example, it is easy to pick a glass of water but very difficult to keep holding it for a longer time.
Mode of Goodness
When one performs his prescribed duty only when it is oath to be done and renounce all association or attachment to the fruit, this is said to be renunciation in the mode of goodness. When somebody renounces but understands that certain things need to be done as part of their duties and they still take action to complete their duties. So when you are in the mode of goodness, you not hateful nor you are attach to the results but you’re actually peaceful and Krishna makes it clear that renunciation is technically not possible because you cannot live without doing any activity. The idea is to give Krishna consciousness and not sense gratification.
So the conclusion is that Krishna says we should not renounce but what we should renounce the desire for the results.